W.Nawrot "The Hafele and Keating Paradox" - Phys. Essays 17, 518 (2004)

WThe results of the Hafele and Keating experiment prove that Earth does not rotate around the Sun.

W.Nawrot "Critical Reflections on the Hafele and Keating Experiment" - Proc. of Conf. "Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy in the Interpretations of Relativity Theory" Budapest, 7-9 Sept. 2007.

In 1971 Hafele and Keating performed their famous experiment which confirmed the time dilation predicted by SRT by use of macroscopic clocks. As it had already been shown [1], the continuation of reasoning applied by Hafele and Keating leads to the absurd conclusion that the Earth is not rotating around the Sun. Hafele and Keating derived a proper formula starting from false reasoning and this is the origin of the paradox. They tried to derive the formula from SRT, while the proper derivation can only be obtained from GRT [2]. There were also serious doubts concerning the experimental part of their work [4,5], but it does not matter now because today the GPS system confirms what H&K wanted to prove. Finally, H&K wanted to confirm SRT but their experiment confirmed, in fact, the GRT. If we take a closer look at other experiments confirming SRT, we will come to the conclusion that all the experiments in fact confirm GRT similarly to the H&K experiment, because in order to compare times in two reference frames we have to disturb motion of one of the frames and this brings the problem to problems described by GRT. The pure inertial motion makes observation from two observed each other frames fully symmetrical, and we are not able to define in which of the frames the time flies slower. In this case we can draw the conclusion that the slowing of time in pure inertial motion can be only an observational effect. Only the change of speed of one of the participants transforms the observed time dilation into the real one. Therefore we can ask the questions – are there any serious experimental evidences confirming SRT? And - if in order to register the shortening of time the change of speed is necessary – can we assume, as it is done in SRT, that time slows down as a function of velocity.? Maybe the slowing of the time is rather a function of the change in velocity than the velocity itself?

W.Nawrot "Proposal of simpler description of SRT" - Galilean Electrodynamics 18, 43-48 (2007)

A new concept of four dimensional reality is presented. The fourth dimension of the reality is now described with a dimension different from the time of the observer. Consequently, the Euclidean model of reality is obtained, description of phenomena is simplified in relation to the four-dimensional Lorentzian space-time and the singularities taking place in the description of the reality become now an effect of performing the observation and are not the property of reality any more. The new model also predicts certain new experimental effects which can be a reliable test for the new model.

This paper presents the new concept of time - the SUPERTIME. The SUPERTIME is the time identical for all bodies, independently of their relative motion. The SUPERTIME, together with the earlier FER model (Four-dimensional Euclidean Reality), justifies in a simple way the wave structure of matter and allows to introduce the new way of finding functions which describe the particles as waves. The new approach also greatly extends the class of these functions.

Recently, more and more papers have been published concerning the alternative for Minkowski space - a Euclidean space model, in which time and spatial dimensions are identical [1-12]. The main idea of the Four Dimensional Euclidean Reality (FER) is the assumption that the reality is constructed of different dimensions than the observed space and time dimensions. The observed space and time dimensions are only certain projections of the "true" Euclidean dimensions. Such an assumption allows for the construction of the model of Euclidean reality from 4 identical dimensions, none of which is initially specified as being a time- or space dimension. It is only the choice of the pair: observer - the observed body, which determines which directions in FER are perceived as the spatial dimensions, and which as the time dimension. According to the FER model, the "real" reality is Euclidean, and while observing bodies in this reality we get the impression that the reality is actually Lorentzian. As a result we obtain several promising conclusions, i.e. the speed of E-M waves and the speed limit for mass bodies are described with two totally different mechanisms, which easily justifies the constancy of the speed of light. The singularities present in SRT are now only an effect of observation and not the real physical limitations of physical phenomena. Hence, the body can be accelerated to the velocity observed as the speed of light, but we will not be able to register this process. The new definition of time enables us to describe a sequence of events from the point of view of the body moving with the speed of light. The particle described with a wave function, in space-time, is described in FER as an ordinary wave, etc. The theory predicts new physical phenomena which can serve as experimental tests for the new model.

The model of Euclidean space, in which all four dimensions are identical, and the time- and spatial dimensions we observe, are only certain directions in FER (Four-dimensional Euclidean Reality), depending on the choice of the observer and the observed body [1 3], allows for the derivation of many spectacular conclusions [4,5]. Such conclusions may suggest that our ideas about the construction of the reality differ greatly from what actually surrounds us. The FER model predicts the new method of the composition of velocities, which does not allow for exceeding the speed of light, but allows for accelerating the body to the velocity observed as the speed of light, using finite energy. The new method of the composition of velocities results from a different transformation of coordinates than the Lorentz one. Such transformation anticipates the time dilation analogically to the Relativity Theory, but does not anticipate the Lorentzian shortening of spatial dimensions in case of macroscopic observations. When observers are moving along linear trajectories which have a common beginning, and they are observing each other, they are observing the increasing of mutual velocities proportionally to the distance between the observers. This phenomena allows for describing the increase of the velocity of the galaxies in a very simple way. The increase of velocities of galaxies is now a seeming effect, and is not the result of any real acceleration resulting from enigmatic repulsion interactions. The increase of the velocity, the Hubble's constant, as well as the definition of the Hubble's constant as the reverse of the age of the Universe, are obtained here from a very simple formula consisting of just a few symbols. According to the FER model we are able to observe only half of the real Universe.

In the Relativity Theory equations are written in a form that conserves the value of the space-time interval during the transition from one observer's system to another. The Lorentz Transformation is a generally known solution of the space-time interval equation so that the equations of the RT are invariant in relation to this transformation. According to the Four dimensional Euclidean Reality Model (FER) there is another solution of this equation and this solution allows to draw some other conclusions than the conclusions obtained on the grounds of the Lorentz Transformation. Derivation of the Lorentz Transformation according to the FER model is still possible but the derivation can be performed only at the cost of breaking certain laws. Therefore, although the Lorentz Transformation is mathematically correct, it is not correct from the physical point of view.

Recent papers show that the space-time can be described with the Four-dimensional Euclidean Reality (FER) in which all dimensions have identical properties. According to the new model, the dimensions of time and space which we are able to observe are not the dimensions that create the reality. They are only certain directions in FER, which are interpreted by us as the dimensions of space. The directions interpreted by us as the time- and space dimensions depend on the choice of an observed body and an observer, that is to say the directions are different for every pair: the observer and the observed body. According to the new model of the reality, observers that move in FER along trajectories having a common origin - as it takes place in case of the galaxies - observe other bodies/observers as moving with the velocity proportional to the distance from the observer. The velocity proportional to the distance is now the result of observation only and has nothing to do with any acceleration.

Original version available at http://www.phil-inst.hu/~szekely/PIRT_BP_2/papers/NAWROT_09_FT.doc

In 1971 Hafele and Keating performed their famous experiment which confirmed the time dilation predicted by SRT by use of macroscopic clocks. As it had already been shown [1], the continuation of reasoning applied by Hafele and Keating leads to the absurd conclusion that the Earth is not rotating around the Sun. Hafele and Keating derived a proper formula starting from false reasoning and this is the origin of the paradox. They tried to derive the formula from SRT, while the proper derivation can only be obtained from GRT [2]. There were also serious doubts concerning the experimental part of their work [4,5], but it does not matter now because today the GPS system confirms what H&K wanted to prove. Finally, H&K wanted to confirm SRT but their experiment confirmed, in fact, the GRT. If we take a closer look at other experiments confirming SRT, we will come to the conclusion that all the experiments in fact confirm GRT similarly to the H&K experiment, because in order to compare times in two reference frames we have to disturb motion of one of the frames and this brings the problem to problems described by GRT. The pure inertial motion makes observation from two observed each other frames fully symmetrical, and we are not able to define in which of the frames the time flies slower. In this case we can draw the conclusion that the slowing of time in pure inertial motion can be only an observational effect. Only the change of speed of one of the participants transforms the observed time dilation into the real one. Therefore we can ask the questions - are there any serious experimental evidences confirming SRT? And - if in order to register the shortening of time the change of speed is necessary - can we assume, as it is done in SRT, that time slows down as a function of velocity.? Maybe the slowing of the time is rather a function of the change in velocity than the velocity itself?

Original version available at http://www.phil-inst.hu/~szekely/PIRT_Budapest/

The new model of Four dimensional Euclidean Reality (FER), which recently, more and more often, appears in publications, can significantly change the manner in which we interpret the reality surrounding us. According to the approach presented here, the reality we are able to observe differs from the "true" reality. Living, in fact, in the Four dimensional Euclidean Reality, we get an impression that we are living in the four dimensional Lorentzian reality. The impression is a consequence of the seemingly obvious assumption that the space and time distances that we are able to observe are the actual dimensions creating the reality. However, an assumption saying that the distances we measure during the observation of surrounding objects are describing the true dimension of the reality can be similar to the assumption, accepted through centuries, saying that the motions of heavenly bodies, observed by us on the firmament from the Earth, are the motions that the bodies are actually performing. Perhaps it is just the improper model of the reality that is the source of all the troubles, misunderstandings and complications of the models based on the Relativity Theory, which, although correctly describing a wide class of phenomena, did not lead to solutions which at the beginning of the XX-th century seemed to be just a step away, i.e. unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions . It should be noticed that a few hundred years ago, the geocentric theory, though complicated, was describing motions of heavenly bodies in a more accurate way than the later heliocentric theory however, the progress of science and, for instance, planning cosmic travels, would not be possible with the geocentric model. The new, Euclidean model of reality allows us to answer the questions asked already in my other paper concerning SRT: is the slowing of time, in a frame of body in motion, actual slowing or it is only a result of mutual observation, and why registering of the shortening of the time requires the change of velocity of the observed body. An additional argument for the necessity of more serious treatment of new models, alternative to the hitherto ones, would be the recently observed anomalies of motions of satellites which are impossible to explain with the help of the Relativity Theory.

W. Nawrot, The New Concept of Ether" Submitted to Galilean Electrodynamics Feb. 2012

The new model of the Euclidean Reality FER (Four dimensional Euclidean Reality) introduces the new concept of the motion of bodies, which allows for returning to the idea of the ether. In the FER, the motion of bodies in relation to the ether and the relative motion of the bodies are two separate phenomena. The FER Model allows for describing a body as a wave moving with constant velocity relative to the ether, along a certain trajectory. The relative velocity of bodies which we are able to observe is not connected with the motion of the bodies-waves relative to the ether but it is only the measure of an angle between the trajectories that the bodies-waves are moving along. The velocity described in such a way is not connected with the velocity of the bodies-waves relative to the ether. Therefore, the experimental investigations examining the relative motion of bodies (measuring an angle between the trajectories) are not able to detect the motion of bodies-waves relative to the ether.

W. Nawrot, "New philosophy of Aether in Euclidean Reality model and interpretation of indications of Sagnac and MM interferometers" Proceedings of the 20 NPA Minneapolis, MN USA 2013

According to the new model of Four dimensional Euclidean Reality, motion of bodies in relation to Aether and relative motion of bodies are two separate phenomena, therefore there is no necessity for introducing the idea of "entrained Aether". According to this model, the MM and Sagnac interferometers are not able to detect any motion in relation to Aether, however the rule of propagation of light, introduced by the new model, explains the difference between indications of these two interferometers.

W. Nawrot, "Explanation of twin paradox according to the Euclidean Reality Model" Proceedings of the 20 NPA Minneapolis, MN USA 2013

The Four dimensional Euclidean Reality model clearly explains why during the uniform, rectilinear motion, the time dilation effect is symmetrical for both twins, and why and when the time dilation is eventually measured in a system of one of the travelling twin.

W. Nawrot, "The Hafele-Keating paradox - Serious problems of the special theory of relativity (SRT)?" Phys.Ess. **27**, 4, pp 598-600 (2014)

Conclusions from the Hafele–Keating paradox indicate that the hitherto experiments confirming predictions of special theory of relativity, concerning the phenomena of time dilation in moving frames, did not prove unequivocally whether the time dilation is only the result of the velocity itself or of the change of the velocities of bodies

W. Nawrot, "Proposal of experiment disproving the Theory of Relativity" Accepted for publication in the Galilean Electrodynamics, 2015

This paper presents an idea for an experiment which should give results contradicting the predictions of the Theory of Relativity. The experiment consists of using two low energy (below 0,4Ge.V) colliding beams, the relative velocity of which, according to the model of Euclidean Reality, should be equal to the speed of light. The possibility of obtaining the relative velocity of objects equal to the speed of light with the help of finite energies results from the new transformation of velocities published independently in two papers in Galilean Electrodynamics. According to the article presented here, during the measuring of pp total cross sections in a collider, for the relative speed of colliding protons equal (and almost equal) to the speed of light, in a very strict and very narrow range of energies, a sharp spike should be visible on the pp cross section diagram. Existence of this spike will prove that the hitherto rule of transformation of velocities and consequently the Lorentz transformations are wrong. Moreover it will prove that the idea of deformation of dimensions as a function of speed is wrong as well.

Witold Nawrot "Alternative Idea of Relativity" International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, p-ISSN: 2167-6844 e-ISSN: 2167-6852, 2017; 7(5): 95-112

A new, alternative idea of the reality is presented. Instead of four-dimensional space-time with the signature defined with the metric tensor and dimensions deformed as a function of body’s motion, a four-dimensional absolute Euclidean space is proposed whose dimensions do not have a predetermined meaning of time or space. The dimensions of time and space are not the dimensions creating the reality any more, but they are only certain directions in Euclidean four-dimensional space. And these directions depend on the pair of observer – observed body. While observing bodies moving with various velocities we interpret various directions in the Euclidean reality as the space-time dimensions and that’s, in general, the difference of directions interpreted by us as the space-time dimensions and not the deformation of dimensions, becomes responsible for relativistic phenomena. The new approach significantly simplifies the description of reality – through the description in Euclidean space, it eliminates singularities and additionally answers many questions that the Theory of Relativity was not able to answer to for almost 100 years.

Contents <<< Previous page <<< >>> Next Page >>> References